Birth of the Beautiful Game: A Study on Class and Regional Conflicts in the Emergence of Modern Professional English Football

March 29, 2020

       Source: Oliver Upton/AP 

 

 Berkshire College

 

 

           Eton school by Tim Pestridge   

 

         Fergus Suter and Jimmy Love, "The English Game" (Netflix)

 

              Preston North End, Football League champions, 1888-89,  Source: Howard Barlow 

 

 

               King George V shakes hands with Liverpool and Burnley captains (Liverpoolfc.com)              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 References

 

1 “History of Football- The Origins,” FIFA, accessed March 4, 2017, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/who-we-are/the-game/index.html.

2 Adrian Harvey, “The Public Schools and Organized Football in Britain: Fresh Perspectives on Old Paradigms,” The International Journal of the History of Sport 33 (2016): 272.

3 Harvey, “The Public Schools and Organized Football in Britain,” 279.

4 Sivakumar Velayutham, and Ajantha Velayutham, “Emergence of the Transnational Capitalist Class in Sports: Manchester United Football Club (MUFC) and the English Premier League (EPL),” Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 15 (2016): 524.

5 “Whitehall, July 14, 1909,” The London Gazette, July 16, 1909, accessed February 12, 2017, https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/28271/page/5458.

6 E.C. Hawtrey, “Eton College,” The Windsor and Eton Express, November 12, 1842, accessed February 21, 2017, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~dutillieul/ZWindsorEtonExpress/12thNovember1842.html.

7 Harvey, “The Public Schools and Organized Football in Britain,” 274.

8 Harvey, “The Public Schools and Organized Football in Britain,” 281.

9 Harvey, “The Public Schools and Organized Football in Britain,” 279.

10 Ilse Hartmann-Tews, “The Idea of Sport for All and the Development of Organised Sport in Germany and Great Britain,” Journal of European Area Studies 7 (1999), 145.

11 Tony Mason, Sport in Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 38.

12 Christos Kassimeris, Football Comes Home: Symbolic Identities in European Football (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2010), 40.

13 “The History of the FA,” The FA, accessed March 23, 2017, http://www.thefa.com/about-football-association/what-we-do/history.

14 “New Readerships,” Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, January 16, 1864, accessed March 12, 2017, p.3.

15 “Representative Matches: Inter Country Association and Regional Representative XIs,” Scottish Football Historical Archive, accessed March 12, 2017, https://web.archive.org/web/20130924221349/http://scottish-football-historical-archive.com/representativexis.htm.

16 Wray Vamplew, “Sport and Industrialization: An Economic Interpretation of the Changes in Popular Sport in Nineteenth-Century England,” in Pleasure, Profit, Proselytism: British Culture and Sport at Home and Abroad, 1700-1914, ed. J.A. Mangan (London: Routledge, 1988), 12.

17 John Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 82.

18 Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914, 82.

19 Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914, 183.

20 John Maclean, “Curious Custom in Dorking,” Notes and Queries Vol. 1 3rd S. (12) March 22, 1862, p. 224, accessed February 22, 2017, http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ilej/image1.pl?item=page&seq=3&size=1&id=nq.1862.3.22.1.12.x.224.

21 Malcolm Henson, “Cultural Imperialism: A Case Study of Football in Bath in the Late-Victorian Era,” The Sports Historian 21 (2001): 22.

22 Henson, “Cultural Imperialism,” 25.

23 Ibid.

24 Henson, “Cultural Imperialism,” 29.

25 Henson, “Cultural Imperialism,” 22.

26 Henson, “Cultural Imperialism,” 31.

27 “Football: Bolton V. Chorley,” The Farnworth  Journal, November 25, 1876, accessed February 22, 2017, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~dutillieul/ZOtherPapers/NewFarn25Nov1876.html.

28 Ibid.

29 Mason, Sport in Britain, 37.

30 Tony Matthews, Football Firsts (London: Capella, 2006), 85.

31 Matthews, Football Firsts, 87.

32 Adrian Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story (London: Routledge, 2005), 171.

33 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 176.

34 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 214.

35 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 215.

36 Stephen G. Jones. Sport, Politics and the Working Class: Organized Labour and Sport in Inter-War Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), 18.

37 Velayutham and Velayutham, “Emergence of the Transnational Capitalist Class in Sports,” 524.

38 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 216.

39 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 217.

40 Ibid.

41 Mason, Sport in Britain, 40.

42 Mason, Sport in Britain, 42.

43 Mason, Sport in Britain, 88.

44 Lowerson,  Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914, 182.

45 Byron Butler, 100 Seasons of League Football (London: Queen Anne Press, 1998), 392.

46 Kassimeris, Football Comes Home, 41.

47 Ibid.

48 Paul Fletcher, “One Letter, Two Meetings and 12 Teams- the Birth of League Football,” BBC Sport, accessed March 29, 2017, http://www.bbc.com/sport/football/21492352.

49 R. J. Holt, “Football and the Urban Way of Life in Nineteenth-Century Britain,” in Pleasure, Profit, Proselytism: British Culture and Sport at Home and Abroad, 1700-1914, ed. J.A. Mangan (London: Routledge, 1988), 80.

50 Holt, “Football and the Urban Way of Life in Nineteenth-Century Britain,” 81.

51 Jones, Sports, Politics and the Working Class, 25.

52 Ibid.

53 Mason, Sport in Britain, 25.

54 Ibid.

55 Kassimeris, Football Comes Home, 49.

56 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 222.

57 Jones, Sports, Politics, and the Working Class, 19.

58 “1912 Suffolk Free Press Newspaper Archive,” The Foxearth and District Local History Society, September 24, 1913, accessed February 20, 2017, http://www.foxearth.org.uk/1912-1913SuffolkFreePress.html.

59 “1898-1900 South-West Suffolk Echo Newspaper Archive,” The Foxearth and District Local History Society, March 20, 1898, accessed February 20, 2017, http://www.foxearth.org.uk/1898-1900SouthWestSuffolkEcho.html.

60 “1904-1910 Haverhill Echo.html Newspaper Archive,” The Foxearth and District Local History Society, January 27, 1906, accessed February 20, 2017, http://www.foxearth.org.uk/1904-1910HaverhillEcho.html.

61 “1906 Suffolk Free Press Newspaper Archive,” The Foxearth and District Local History Society, December 12, 1906, accessed February 22, 2017, http://www.foxearth.org.uk/1906-1907SuffolkFreePress.html.

62 Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Class, 184.

63 Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Class, 185.

64 Ibid.

65 Harvey, Football: The First Hundred Years- The Untold Story, 222.

66 Vamplew, “Sport and Industrialization,” 16.

67 “The Struggle Between the Football Association and the Player's Union,” The Spectator Archive, September 4, 1909, accessed February 26, 2017, http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/4th-september-1909/3/the-struggle-between-the-football-association-and-.

68 Ibid.

69 Mason, Sport in Britain, 65.

70 “Coupon Betting: The Football Fungus.,” The Spectator Archive, March 22, 1913, accessed February 26, 2017, http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/22nd-march-1913/10/coupon-betting-the-football-fungus.

71 Ben Venables, “When FA Cup Finals were a Picnic in Crystal Palace Park,” Londonist, accessed March 23, 2017, http://londonist.com/2015/05/when-fa-cup-finals-were-a-picnic-in-crystal-palace-park.

72 “Recreation Versus Distraction,” The Spectator Archive, March 17, 1894, accessed February 26, 2017, http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/17th-march-1894/12/recreation-versus-distraction.

73 “Professionalism in Football,” The Spectator Archive, February 20, 1909, accessed February 26, 2017, http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/20th-february-1909/11/professionalism-in-football.

74 Holt, “Football and the Urban Way of Life in Nineteenth-Century Britain,” 75.

 

 

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